Job description and job specification are two important parts of job analysis. Both define a job and guide employer and employee to go about the whole process of recruitment and selection. Both are extremely relevant for creating a right fit between job and talent, evaluating performance, analyzing training needs and measuring the worth of a particular job.
A job description is a written statement of what the jobholder does, how it is done, under what conditions it is done and why it is done. It describes what the job is all about, throwing light on job contents, environment, and conditions of employment. It is descriptive in nature and defines the purpose and scope of the job. The primary goal of a job description is to differentiate the situation from other employment and state its outer limits.
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purpose of the job description
• The main objective of the job description is to collect job-related data to advertising for a particular job. It helps in attracting, targeting, recruiting and selecting the right candidate for the right job.
• It is done to determine what needs to be delivered in a particular job. It clarifies what employees are supposed to do if selected for that particular job.
• It gives what kind of candidate is required by a particular department or division recruiting view to staff for the performance of specific task or job.
• It also clarifies about who will report to whom.
It is also known as employee specifications, a job specification is a written statement of educational qualifications, the level of experience, particular qualities, emotional, physical, communication and technical skills required to responsibilities, perform a job, involved in a job and other unusual sensory demands.
Job specification is useful in the selection process because it offers a clear set of qualification for a person to be hired for a particular job. It also includes mental health, general health, intelligence, memory, aptitude, judgment, emotional ability, adaptability, leadership skills, flexibility, values and manners ethics, and creativity, etc.
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purpose of the job specification
• Job specification helps candidates analyze whether they are eligible to apply for a particular job vacancy or not.
• It helps to recruit the team of an organization understands what level of qualifications, qualities and the set of skills should be present in a candidate to make him or her eligible for the job opening.
• It helps in selecting the most appropriate candidate for a particular job.
Job design is affected by organizational environment and behavioral factors properly designed job will make it productive and satisfying. Once job analysis is done, the organization has defined job descriptions and job specifications. The team can then use this information to design or redesign jobs. Similar duties and tasks are grouped together to create meaningful jobs. This results in achievement of optimal performance and job satisfaction of the jobholder. To enhance this performance and comfort, it is also essential to align the competencies of the jobholder with the requirements of the job. Jobs are assessed, and the skills required to perform them are determined. Current skill levels of employees are identified. The power deficiency provides the basis for training and redeployment. Three other elements have an impact on the design of a job. These are organizational, environmental and behavioral.
A) Organizational elements are concerned with efficiency. Efficiently designed positions allow motivated and capable workers to achieve maximum output.
B) Environmental elements must be considered in developing a job. These are the abilities of the existing employees, requirements for potential employees and their social expectations. Jobs should be designed such that they fully utilize the capabilities of the workforce. Today’s workers also have high hopes about the quality of work life (QWL). If the design of a job does not offer the QWL that an employee aspires for, the job will create dissatisfaction and low motivation.
C) While job creation with elements that aid efficiency, the human needs or the behavioral aspects of persons performing the job also have to be taken into consideration. Individuals with a strong desire to satisfy higher order needs play best when jobs are high on dimensions of
• Autonomy, which is responsible for work.
• Variety, which is the use of different skills and abilities.
• Task identity, which is in charge of the whole piece of work.
• Feedback, which is information on performance.
• Task significance, which is the importance of responsibility to people within and outside the organization.
Techniques of job redesign Depending on the skills and abilities of employees available to perform a task, jobs may require redesigning. Some jobs are highly specialized whereas others are routine and repetitive. The action that needs to be taken in job redesign are:
1) Everyday jobs: If a job is much specialized, experts like industrial engineers need to simplify work in a manner that the task becomes simple to perform. The advantage of under specialization is that it can be done by employees with limited skills; the disadvantage is that boredom sets in resulting in errors or even resignation.
2) Overspecialised jobs: Overspecialised jobs do not provide opportunities for accomplishment, recognition or psychological growth. To improve the quality of work life for persons working on such tasks, the following techniques are used:
A) Job rotation: Job rotation breaks the monotony of performing a highly specialized job by placing persons on jobs requiring different skills and abilities. The organization benefits because workers become competent on several jobs. The variety of employment improves the employee’s self-image, provides personal growth and makes the employee more valuable to the organization.
B) Job enlargement: Job enlargement expands the number of related tasks in the job. Expansion reduces monotony and utilizes a wider range of employee skills.
C) Job enrichment: Job enrichment increases responsibility, autonomy, and control. There is the vertical loading of the job by adding more planning and managing responsibilities. Regardless of the nature of redesign, it must be understood that re-engineering cannot work unless the skills of the employees match the job requirements.