Human Resource Management is the organizing, planning, controlling and directing the operative functions of development, procurement, maintenance, and compensation, of human resource to achieve an organization’s goals or objectives. It is responsible for getting the best people, training them and providing the mechanism to ensure that these employees maintain their productive associations with the organizations.
Scope and Goals
Human Resource Management is concerned with the group of people dimensions of the organizations. The organizational objectives can be best attained by acquiring the human resource, developing their skills, motivating them for high performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment and loyalty towards the organization. The scope of Human Resource Management is enormous. It covers almost all the activities in the career life of an employee in the company. The activities that come under the operational area of Human Resource Management are:
a) Human Resource Planning: This element involves determining the organization’s human resource needs, strategies, and philosophies. It includes analysis of the external and internal factors such as skills needed, the number of vacancies, trends in the labor market, etc.
B) Selection and Recruitment: Selection is the process of matching the career of people and their needs and job capabilities and career paths. It ends with the hiring of a candidate. Recruitment is concerned with developing a pool of candidates in line with the human resource plan.
c) Training and Development: Training and development involve identification of individual abilities and helping in the development of critical expertise through a planned learning process. The skills are to be developed to enable people to perform current as well as future jobs.
d) Organizational Development: This element assures severe winter and intra-unit relationships. It helps work groups in initiating and managing change.
e) Career Development: It ensures an alignment of the management requirements with individual needs. It is a process of achieving a match between individual and organizational needs.
t) Job Design: Job Design defines the authority, tasks, and systems of a job. It also ensures the combination of particular jobs across the unit.
g) Performance Management Systems: The performance management systems provide linkages between personal and organizational goals. They train to ensuring that every person’s actions and works support the purposes of the organization.
h) Compensation and Benefits: Compensation and benefits focus on a consistent, fair, and allowances pay and equitable to the workforce.
i) Employee Assistance: Employee assistance feature means to provide to individual employees problem-solving / counseling activities. The support purpose is to help employees in overcoming personal, career and job-related problems.
j) Employment Relations: This variable assures healthy union-organization relationship. It aims at creating an environment of industrial peace and harmony.
k) Research and Audit: This element ensures a reliable HR information base. It not only evaluates personnel policies and programs but also highlights the need and areas of change.
Roles and Functions
Human Resource Management aims at bringing together expertise and skills in a scientific way. It helps in creating attitudes that motivate a group to achieve the organizational goals efficiently and economically. The basic functions of human resource management include:
a) Commencement function: Commencement function deals with selection and recruitment of human resource. It involves identification of abilities, knowledge, and skills in an applicant. It facilitates fixation of performance standards, pays rates and invoking the appropriate disciplinary action if any. The focus is on expediting adjustment to the attainment of organizational goals, work environment, and regulations of the department and adherence to the rules in which the candidate has to work.
b) Development Function: Development function covers employee development, employee training, career development and organization development. The focus is on assisting employees to acquire better and improved skills for handling current jobs, enriching employees with more production values, making the organization more adaptive to external influences and designing programs to assist employees in advancing in their work lives.
c) Motivation function: Motivation function purpose is improving performance and needs proper job designing, adoption of an effective performance appraisal machinery and an introduction of a fair and just system of incentives and compensation.
d) Maintenance function: The support function deals with putting in place activities that will help retain productive employees. It involves providing a safe working environment, caring for the well-being of the employees and organizing communication programs. The motive behind organizing communication programs is to provide information to the employees to vent their frustrations.
e) Employment Function: The main thrust of this feature is to promote the activities related to the inception function by advertising the job. It is important to note that the role does not deal with hiring decisions. It just co-ordinates the efforts with line management by handling the routine paperwork associated with recruitment and selection.
F) Training and Development function: Training and development function is the organization’s internal change agent. The focus of this feature is to enhance the personal qualities of the employees to improve organizational productivity. This feature also counsels the employees and helps them in making a better career choice and in finding ways to achieve the desired goals.
G) Compensation and Benefits: Compensation and Benefits function is the most difficult task, for it deals with the most scientific areas of an individual field. It is concerned with paying the employees and in administering their benefits package. The payment is based on consideration of skills, job responsibility, efforts, and accountability. While deciding the benefits package, stress is laid on employee needs, and expectations and the burden these bags create on the financial resources. These considerations often result in a conflict.
H) Employee Relations function: The task before the human resource manager is to solve employee grievances in a non-unionized setting. The service involves enforcement of policies and procedures and permitting a ‘wronged employee’ a forum to obtain relief. The organization should ensure appropriate disciplinary sanctions.
Principles of Human Resource Management
The Human Resource Management success depends on the manner in which HR procedures and policies governing, implemented and composed. The effectiveness of HR policies depends on the following principles:
A) self-interested: People should be dealt with as individuals. This calls for a clear understanding of what the employees feel about all those decisions that affect their interests and their work assignments and personnel policies.
B) feeling worthwhile: It is imperative that employees should feel that they are the most valuable resource to the organization. It is important to respect and consider the employees feeling of accomplishment, good relations and pride with management, labor, and co-workers.
c) Fair and just Policies: The policies and practices should be fair and just. Giving equal opportunities to all the employees is necessary. Sanctions should also be applied uniformly.
D) earned Rewards: The employees should be informed that they will not be given bonuses. Instead, they should strive hard to ‘earn’ rewards. In other words, rewards should be performance-based and should not be demanded or given as a matter of right.
E) organizational information: All employees have a right to know corporate information as it promotes the timely execution of work. Withholding information is similar to creating obstacles in the employee’s ways.
I) Judge the strength: The HR manager should judge force and ability, the skill of the employees correctly. This is necessary to avoid irritation and frustrations.
g) According to pay for equal work: All employees should be paid by equal pay for equal work. This approach has tremendous motivational value.